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ⓘ Ubhubhane igama elisuselwa esiGrikhini, lichaza ukuqubuka kwesifo esithelelanayo esesihambe amazwe ahlukene nezindawo ezahlukene. Ukubhebhetheka ngokushesha kwe ..




                                               

Isifo seCoronavirus 2019

Isifo seCoronavirus 2019 yisifo esitholakala lapho umuntu onegciwane le-coronavirus ethelela abanye abantu. Umuntu, noma ngokuthinta izindawo ezihlangene negciwane bese uthinta amehlo, ikhala noma umlomo. Imvamisa, leli gciwane lisakazeka ngamaconsi okuphefumula adalwa lapho umuntu onegciwane ekhwehlela noma ethimula. Noma ngubani osondele ngokwanele kumuntu othophayo noma okhophayo makhulu angatheleleka ngegciwane. Ngenye indlela umuntu angangenwa yileli gciwane ngokuthinta indawo ethelelekile bese ethinta amehlo akho, izindlebe noma ikhala ngaphandle kokubulala amagciwane izandla zakho.

Ubhubhane
                                     

ⓘ Ubhubhane

Ubhubhane igama elisuselwa esiGrikhini, lichaza ukuqubuka kwesifo esithelelanayo esesihambe amazwe ahlukene nezindawo ezahlukene. Ukubhebhetheka ngokushesha kwesifo ebantwini abaningi abasendaweni eyodwa esikhathini esifishane kubizwa ngobhubhane lwendawana. Bese kuba khona isifo esithelele abantu abayisibalo esaziwayo, lolu akulona ubhubhane. Isifo esithelelanayo esinesibalo abathelelekile abaziwayo esifana nomkhuhlane wokushintsha kwezikhathi zonyaka azibalwa kubhubhane ngoba zivela ngesikhathi esisodwa ezindaweni ezahlukene emhlabeni kunokuthi zibhebhetheke emhlabeni wonke.

                                     

1. Incazelo nezigaba

Ubhubhane isifo esithelelanayo esiqala ezweni elilodwa sibhebhetheke kwamanye amazwe. Ukuze isifo kuzothiwa siwubhubhane, kufanele kube isifo esibhebhetheke emazweni amaningi futhi kube isifo esithelelanayo/ Umzekelo; isifo somdlavuza sibulala abantu abaningi emhlabeni kodwa akuthiwa ubhubhane ngoba asithelelani.

Isigaba sokuqala senzeka lapho okuqala khona ukutholakala kwabantu abanesifo. Uma kungenziwa isibonelo nge-COVID-19, kungashiwo isikhathi la okwakusagula khona abantu abayidlanzana.

Isigaba sesibili ilapho okubonakala khona isifo emphakathini. Ilapho okubonakala khona ukuthelelana kwabantu kuphinde kulokhu kutheleleka abasha.

Isigaba sesithathu ilapho ukubhebhetheka kwesifo sekuthotshisiwe noma kungasekho muntu othelelekayo.

                                     

2. Ukuphatheka

Ziningi izinto amazwe angazenza uma kuqubuka ubhubhane. Ngo 2005 isigungu sezempilo umhlaba wonke i-World Health OrganisationWHO yasungula indlela yokumelana nezifo emazweni onke i-International Health RegulationsIHR, lokhu kwakwenzelwa ukuvikela, nokuphathwa kwezifo ezingahle zithutheleke kwamanye amazwe. ngaphezu kwalokho i-WHO yenze uhlelo lwecebo lokumelana nobhubhane oluyimikhuhlane. Lolu hlelo lwashicilelwa ngo-1999 okokuqala lase luphinda lubhekwa futhi ngo-2005 nango-2009. Izinhlelo eziningi ezazibekelwe ukubhekana ne-COVID-19 zadalula kwi-IHR yango-2005 nasekuzilungiseleleni kwe-WHO.

Sekube nezinkulumo ngezindlela okumele zisetshenziwe ezizosiza amazwe akwazi ukuthola iziguli eziningi zisuka nje ngaphambi kokuzibeka zodwa bese ziyalashwa, lezo zindlela. Emveni kwalokho kube sekulandelelwa bonke abantu abake bahlangana nalo ogulayo, bese nabo bebekwa bodwa. Lendlela yokwenza idunyiswe indlela ebasebenzele ngayo emazweni okubalwa kuwo i-South Korea neSingapore, yizo lezi zizwe zaqala ukulungiselela into efana nalena emfeni kobhubhane lwe-SARS.

Ukuqhelelana nomphakathi enye yezindlela okuhloswe ukwehliswa ukuthelelana ngokuvimba ukuthi abantu bengasondelani ukuze kwehliswe amathuba okuthelelana ngezifo ezithelelanayo. Umphathi we-WHO uDkt Michael J Ryan, ekhuluma nabezindaba kuNdasaMashi ka-2019, uthe ukuziqhelelanisa nomphakathi indlela yesikhashana okungehliswa ukubhebhetheka kwaleli gciwane iphinde isuse umthwalo kwabezempilo, kodwa ngeke iliqede leli gciwane. Kubiza imali eningi ukwenza lokhu futhi kumele kwenziwe kanye neminye imizamo.

                                     

3.1. Ubhubhane lwamanje Indaba ephelele: Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS

Yize i-WHO isebenzisa igama elichaza ubhubhane lwendawo uma ichaza isandulela ngculazi. Kusukela ngo-2018, balinganiiselwa kumamiliyoni angu-37.9 abantu abanesandulela ngculazi emhlabeni. kufe abantu abalinganiselwa ku-770 000, bebulawa ingculazi ngo-2018. Okwamanje i- Sub-Saharan Africa iyona ndawo enabantu abaningi abathelelekayo. Ngo-2018 bebelinganiselwa emaphesentini angu-61 abathelelekile kulendawo.

                                     

3.2. Ubhubhane lwamanje Amagciwane ohlobo lwekhorona

Amagciwane ohlobo lwekhorona angamagcciwane awumndeni omkhulu wamagciwane abanga ukugula okusuka emkhuhlaneni omncane kuya ezifeni ezinamandla ezifana ne-Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MERS-CoV ne-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS-CoV. Uhlobo olusha lwalamagciwane i-SARS-COV-2 idala i-COVID-19. Ezinye izinhlobo zalamagciwane zisusuka ezilwaneni zingene ebantwini. Uphenyo olujulile luthole ukuthi i-SARS-COV yangena ebantwini ngamakati, bese kuthi i-MERS-CoV yangena ebantwini ngamakameli. Khukhona ezinye izinhlobo zalamagciwane ezingakangeni ebantwini ezisabhebhetheka ezilwaneni kuphela.

Uhlobo olusha lwegciwane lwekhorona oluquuke e- Wuhan, esifundazweni sase-Hubei, eShayina ngoZibandlela Disemba ka-2019 seludale uhlobo olusha lwesifo esidala kube nzima ukuphefumula lesi sifo i-COVID-19. Isigugu sesikhungo semfundo ephakeme i-John Hopkins, sithe i-COVID-19 ihlasele amazwe angu-200, amazwe ahlaselekee kakhulu kubalwa kuwo i- United States, i-central China, i-western Europe ne Iran. Mhla zingu-11 KuNdasaMashi 2020, isigungu sezempilo umhlaba wonke i-WHO ibike ukuthi i-COVID-19 ubhubhane. Kusukela mhla zingu-23 kuMbasaEphreli 2020, isibala sabantu abathelelwe i-COVID-19 besifika kumamiliyoni angu-2.63 emhlabeni wonke, esabashonile besingu-184.249 bese isibalo sabantu abasindile besimi ku-722.055.



                                     

4.1. Uqubuko olubonakalayo Umalaleveva

Umalaleveva usabalele ezindaweni ezinesifuthefuthe noma ezishisayo, kubalwa kuzo ingxeye yamazwe aseMelika, i-Asia ne-Afrika. Unyaka nonyaka kunabantu abalinganiselwa ku-350 kuya ku 500 wamamiliyoni abathola umalaleveva. Ukungazweli imishayanguzo sekuthanda ukuba inkinga ekwelapheni umalaleveva esikhathini samanje ngoba lesi sehlo sesithanda ukuba yinto ejwayelekile, ngaphandle kwe-artemisinins Umalaleveva wake wayisifo esivamile e-Yurophu naseNyakatho neMelika, lapho ongasabonwa khona. lapho kubalwa nabantu baseziqhingini zase-Pacific nasezwenikazi leqhwa i-Arctic, wabulala abantu abalinganiselwa kuma miliyoni angu-20 kuya kwangu-100. Esikhathinii esiningi uma kuqubuka imikhukhlane ivamise ukubulala abantwana nazaguga, bese kuthi laba abaphakathi nendawo basinde. Kodwa umkhuhlane wase-Spainn waubulala kakhulu abantu abasha. Umkhuhlane wase-Spain wabulala abantu abaningi ukudlula impi yomhlaba yokuqala i-World War I yona eyathu ngamaviki angu-25 yabulala abantu abadlula abantu abalulawa ingculazi eminyakeni engu-25. Ukuhamba ngamaqembu amakhulu kwamasosha kwadala kulempi kwadala ukuthi ukutheleleka kubhebheheke ngokushesha, ukutheleleka kalula kwamasosha kwadalwa ingcindezi yomqondo, ukungadli kahle nokudutshulwa ngamabhomu. Ukuthuthukiswa kwezokuthutha kwadala ukuthi kube lula ukuthi amasosha nabanye bebhebhethekise lesi sifo.

                                     

5.1. Izinkathazo ngamagciwane azayo Amagciwane angabulaleki

Indaba egcwele: Antibiotic resistance

Amagciwane angabulaleki uma ehlaselwa ngesibulala magciwane abizwa ngokuthi" amagciwane anamandlakakhulu”. Lawa magciwane angadala ukuthi kulookhu kubuya izifo esezithotshisiwe. Isibonelo, lapho khona isifo sofuba singayizweli imishayanguzo ejwayele ukusetshenziswa kudala inkinga enkulu kubalaphi. Isibalo sabantu abathola lesi sifo sofuba esibizwa nge- multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MDR-TB sibalwa kuhhafu wemiliyoni emhlabeni wonke unyaka nonyaka. Amazwe anezibalo eziphezulu zaloluhlobo lofuba iShayina neNdiya. Isigungu sezempilo umhlaba wonke i-WHO ibika ukuthi abantu abatheleleka ngalesi sifo emahlabeni wonke balinganiselwa kumamiliyoni angu-50, amaphesentu angu-79 kulabo bantu anamagciwane ahlula izibulala magciwane ezimbili noma ezintathu kuyaphezulu. Ngonyaka kaa-2005 kubikwe ukuthi abathola i-MDR TB babengu-124 eMelika. Isifo sofuba esingalapheki ngemishayanguzo eminingi i-XDR TB yatholakala ezwenikazi lase-Afrika ngo-2006, kwase kutholakala ukuthi isemazweni angu-49 okubalwa kuwo iMelika. i-WHO ilinganisela ukuthi abantu abatheleleka nge XDR-TB bangu-40 000 ngonyaka.

Eminyakeni engu-20 eyedlule amagciwane ajwayelekile okubalwa kuwo i-Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens ne-Enterococcus, asenamandla ukudlula izibulala magciwane ezithize ezifana ne-vancomycin nezinye ezifana neaminoglycosides kanye ne-cephalosporins. Amagciwane angabulaleki angumthelela omkhulu wokutheleleka kwabahlengikazi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukutheleleka okudalwa i-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ebantwini abayimiqemane sekuvamile.



                                     

5.2. Izinkathazo ngamagciwane azayo Izimfiva ezi-hemorrhagic

Izimfiva ezi-hemorrhagic izifo eziyingozi ezithelelanayo. Izibonelo kubalwa kuzo i-Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, Rift Valley fever, Marburg virus disease ne Bolivian hemorrhagic fever. Lezi zifo zinamathuba okuthi zingaba ubhubhane. Into eyenza ukuthi zingabhebhetheku ngokushesha ukuthi zithelelana ngokuthi ube seduze kakhulu nomuntu ezimphethe, futhi lowo muntu uhlala isikhathi esifishane bese eyashona noma agule kakhulu. Lesi sikhathi esifishane sisiza abanhlengi ukuthi basheshe bamuvalele yedwa ogulayo bese engakwazi ukuthelela abanye.

                                     

5.3. Izinkathazo ngamagciwane azayo Zika virus Igciwane iZika

Indaba ephelele: 2015–16 Zika virus epidemic, Zika virus, and Zika fever

Ukuqubuke kwegciwane iZika kwaqala ngo-2015 laba mandla kakhulu ekuqaleni kuka-2016, lapho okwase kunesibaloo esidlulile ku-1.5 wama miliyoni amazweni adlulile kwayishumi nambili emazweeni aseMelika. Inhlangano yezempilo umhlaba wonkeWHO yakhipha isexwayiso esithi iZika kugenzeka ibhebhetheke umhlaba wonke uma ingakhalinywa.

                                     
  • Mashi 2020, i - World Health Organisation yamemezela lesi sifo njengesifo. Ubhubhane yisifo esisakaze ezingxenyeni ezinkulu zomhlaba noma emhlabeni wonke.
  • Ukuphazamiseka komhlaba wonke okudalwe ubhubhane lwe - COVID - 19 sekube nemithelela eminingi emvelweni nasesimeni sezulu. Ukwehla kokuzulazula kwabantu sekudale
  • yaseChina iHubei, futhi selusabalale umhlaba wonke, okuholele ekutheni ubhubhane oluqhubekayo lwangonyaka ka - 2019 ukuya ku - 20 lubone Izimpawu ezijwayelekile